Sky Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. 6(1), pp. 011-018, January, 2017. Available online http://www.skyjournals.org/SJSSEM
ISSN 2315-8794 ©2017 Sky Journals

 

Full Length Research Paper

 

Differences in physical and chemical properties of soils on Yelwa-Dobora toposequence in Ganye local government area, Adamawa State, Nigeria
 

Musa H and Gisilanbe S. A.

 

Department of Soil Science, Modibbo Adamawa University of Technology Yola, Nigeria.

 

*Corresponding author. E-mail: hassanfuty@yahoo.com.


 

Accepted  20 January, 2017

 

Abstract

 

This study was carried out to assess the differences of some soil properties at lower, middle and upper slope positions (0 - 2%, 2 - 3% and 3 - 5%) on Yelwa-Dobora toposequence in Ganye, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Mapping units were delineated using the Geographic Information System (GIS) ArcGIS 9.1 software, where the study area was categorized into 3 different slope positions (SP1, SP2 and SP3) and each slope position was recognized as a mapping unit. Three (3) profile pits were dug on each mapping unit. Data obtained from some physical and chemical properties were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using R Statistical package 3.1.3 and the means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Test for variance was carried out on physical properties of %sand, %silt, %clay, bulk density (g/cm3), particle density (g/cm3), %porosity, %water holding capacity (WHC) and %water retention (WR) and chemical properties on pH, electrical conductivity (ds/m), organic carbon (%), total nitrogen (%), available phosphorus (ppm), calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium (cmol/kg), total exchangeable bases (TEB), total exchangeable acidity (TEA), effective cation exchange capacity (cmol/kg) and %base saturation (BS). The results revealed soil properties such as %sand decreased with increase in slope, while the %clay increased with decrease in slope and water content was highest at the lower slope. pH of the soils ranged between slightly acidic to neutral (6.1-6.5 to 6.6-7.3) and the soils were low in soil OC (<1%) and TN (0-0.15%). The ECEC, Mg2+, OC, TEB and TN indicated significant difference for soil chemical properties. The study confirmed that detrimental effects of soil erosion are higher at upper slopes as compared to middle and lower slopes thereby changing the mineral nutrient concentration in the root zone. Control of damaging effects of erosion would require soil conservation strategies such as afforestation, terracing and inclusion of restorative crops in cropping systems on the lands. 
 

Key words: Soil, slope position, physical and chemical properties, and mapping unit.

 

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