Sky Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 4(7), pp. 060-059, September, 2016. Available online,
ISSN 2315-876X ©2016 Sky Journals


Full Length Research Paper

Investigating the presence of Clostridium difficile in vegetables in Jazan markets, Saudi Arabia

Marwah M. Bakri


Dean of Academic, Campus for Girls, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. E-mail:  Tel.:00966555767094.


Accepted 9 September, 2016



Clostridium difficile is responsible for C. difficile associated diarrhoea and Pseudomembranous colitis and is currently the most common hospital-acquired infection in the western world. Disease is most often the result of preceding antibiotic use and is traditionally associated with exposure to health-care institutions. The epidemiology of C. difficile in the community is poorly understood. Contaminated faeces from farm animal reservoirs may act as a vehicle for transmission of pathogens to foods. The present study investigated the possible transmission of C. difficile to humans through vegetables. Vegetables were bought from Jazan traditional market. A hundred vegetables were obtained on different occasions, two samples from each, making a total of 200 samples of each vegetable. Samples were tested for the presence of C. difficile. Cytotoxicity assay and multiplex PCR were performed on all the positive isolates. Finally, PCR ribotyping was performed on all positive isolates for C. difficile isolates. Three isolates out of 200 samples showed positive for C. difficile. All three isolates were positive for tcdA and tcdB toxin genes and were classified as ribotype 078. All three C. difficile isolates showed resistance to Cefotaxime. The present work showed the potential risk of vegetables in transmitting C. difficile to humans.


Key words: Clostridium difficile, infection, vegetable, Jazan.


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