Sky Journal of Medicines and Medical Sciences Vol. 8(3), pp. 12-19, May, 2022, Available online,

ISSN 2315-8808 ©2022 Sky Journals


Full Length Research Paper

Antiretroviral medicine found in farm chicken in Wakiso district in Uganda: Ramifications for HIV/AIDS care

Hussein Oria*, Kalidi Rajab, Herbert Muyinda, Paul Kutyabami, Elly Katabira & Nelson K Sewankambo


1Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda.


*Corresponding author. E-mail: Tel.:+256772945455.


Accepted  22, February 2022




Uganda has 1.4 million PLHIV, with about 72% Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) coverage. However, there have been reports of widespread misuse of these medicines in farm animals. We determined the content of Efavirenz in chicken tissue and chicken feeds matrices collected from the Wakiso district in Uganda. A reverse-phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Technique (HPLCT) was used to determine the content of efavirenz. The column was C18 3µm, 100X4.6mm. The mobile phase consisted of 30% acetonitrile, 30% methanol, 4 mmolL-1 potassium hydroxide and 10 mmolL-1 acetic acids (pH 4.3). RESULTS: The retention time for efavirenz was 5.9 minutes as detected at UV-VIS 260 nm. This method was linear, with a within-day coefficient of variation of 3.2, 3.3 and 5.1% at concentrations of 2.0 mM (n = 17), 8.0 mM (n = 17), and 20 mM (n = 16), respectively, and a between-day coefficient of variation of 4.1% (n = 50). The limit of quantification for the method was set at 0.5 mg/L. Chicken tissue samples 13% and feed samples 3.3% showed the presence of efavirenz. CONCLUSION: There were traces of efavirenz in chicken tissue and chicken feed samples in Wakiso district in Uganda hence potential exposure to sub-therapeutic concentrations of the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) medicines.

Key words: Chicken tissue, chicken feed, efavirenz, HPLC.


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