Sky Journal of Medicines and Medical Sciences Vol. 4(7), pp. 060-068, September, 2016, Available online,

ISSN 2315-8808 ©2016 Sky Journals


Review Paper

Discordant responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-I infected subjects at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi

Chukwuma G. O.1, Ahaneku G. I.2, Chukwuma O. M.1, Nwaokorie F. O.3, Faneye A. O.3, Manafa P. O.1, Manafa V. I.1, Ebugosi R. S.1, Akulue J. C.1, Aneke J. C.4, Esimone C.O.


1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences & Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus.
2Department of Medicine, College of Health, Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe, University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.
3Nigeria Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Yaba, Lagos State, Nigeria.
4Department of Haematology, College of Health, Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe, University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.
5Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State Nigeria.

*Corresponding author. E-mail:  Tel.: +2348034101608.


HAART: Highly active antiretroviral therapy; VL-Viral Load; ART: antiretroviral therapy; dNTPs: deoxy nucleotide triphosphate; BLCD4: Base line CD4; NRTI: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NNRTI: non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; PI: protease inhibitor; CRF: circulating recombinant form.



Accepted  15 September, 2016




Highly active antiretroviral therapy allows for the reconstitution of immune functions however, discrepant responses may occur. A cross sectional study involving 50 HIV-I infected subjects randomly recruited from the HIV Clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi was conducted. Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained and blood samples collected. The following were determined; HIV-I screening and confirmation, CD4 count, Viral RNA extraction, viral load, amplification and gel electrophoresis. Data were analysed using SPSS version 20. In all, 2(4%), showed a favorable response, while 18(36%) failed on treatment. The mean CD4 count of 100.61±49 observed in failed response was significantly different from the 675.00±348 observed in favorable response (P < 0.05). Moreover, 12(24%) experienced Type I dissociation while 10(20%) experienced Type II dissociation .The difference between the CD4 counts and viral load levels of both the Type I and Type II dissociation were significant (P < 0.05). One sample was amplifiable out of the 50 HIV RNA extracts subjected to PCR for antiretroviral drug resistance testing. Discordant responses to Highly active antiretroviral therapy exists significantly in the population studied, therefore, adequate measures need to be put in place to reduce its level of occurrence.

Key words: HAART, viral load, RNA, discordant, response.


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