Sky Journal of Food Science Vol. 7(2), pp. 020-029, July, 2019, Available online

©2019 Sky Journals


Full Length Research Paper

Mineral bioavailability and chemical composition of cereal-based complementary food

Nwadi, O. M. M.1,2* and Uvere, P. O.2


1Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, South Africa.
2Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author. E-mail:  Tel.:+2348064189927.


Accepted 1 July, 2019




The aim of this research was to produce a nutrient-rich cereal-legume based complementary food with high mineral bioavailability fortified with micronutrients from locally available sources. Maize-malted cowpea (MCm)b and maize-malted bambara nut (MBm)b complementary foods were fortified with calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and provitamin A using processed cattle bone, roselle and red palm oil (mixed with Brachystegia eurycoma (achi) respectively in a modified post-fermentation process by wet-mixing. NUTREND, a commercial complementary food, served as control. The proximate, Fe and Zn contents were above the recommended daily allowance (RDA) except for Ca which was 0.054 mg/100 g [for (MBm)b and (MCm)b] as against 2.5 – 5.0 mg/100 g and provitamin A which was 3.93 and 3.36 µgRE/100 g for (MBm)b and (MCm)b respectively as against 5.00 µgRE/100 g. The quantity of each food fortificant was based on the level of the required nutrient as analysed and the RDA for the nutrient for 6 to 12-month-old infants. The quantified anti-nutrients (tannin, phytate and oxalate) were below the safe levels. The phytate: mineral molar ratios for Ca, Fe and Zn for (MBm)b and (MCm)b were by far lower than the maximum suggested desirable levels which suggested high relative mineral bioavailability.

Key words: Phytate:mineral molar ratio, iron, zinc, malting, fermentation.


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