Sky Journal of Food Science Vol. 5(5), pp. 036-044, August, 2016, Available online

©2016 Sky Journals


Full Length Research Paper

pH changes during fermentation of fortified maize-bambara groundnut malt and maize-cowpea malt complementary foods

Attaugwu Roseline Nwabugo*, Nwadi Oluchukwu Margaret Mary and Uvere Peter Orji


Department of Food Science and Technology Madonna University, Akpugo, Enugu State, Nigeria.


*Corresponding author. E-mail: Tel.:+2348038364047.


Accepted 2 September, 2016



This study determined the pH changes during fermentation and drying of fortified maize-bambara groundnut malt and maize-cowpea malt complementary foods. A 70 : 30 (w/w) composite flour of degermed maize and bambara groundnut malt or cowpea malt was fortified by the modified pre-fermentation and wet-mix technologies with a mix consisting of 1:11.32:11.70 w/w processed cattle (rib) bone, Alternanthera brasiliana or Hibiscus sabdariffa and Brachystegia eurycoma emulsified palm oil and incorporated into the composite flour blend in a ratio of 33.45:1. The course of fermentation (72 h) and drying (48 h) was monitored by pH measurements. The result showed that after fortification, the pH increased in pre-fermentation fortified samples from 7.1 and 6.7 in A. brasiliana samples to 9.5 and 9.8 for MBm and MCm respectively and 9.0 and 9.3 for the Hibiscus sabdariffa equivalents but decreased to 5.4 and 5.0; 5.0 and 4.7 after fermentation respectively. In wet-mix fortification, the pH of the unfortified MBm increased from 4.7 to 6.4 and 6.1 for the MBm containing A. brasiliana and H. sabdariffa fortificant mixes; the MCm equivalent increased from 4.9 to 6.5 and 6.6 upon fortification. The final pH values after drying were 5.0, 4.7, 5.1 and 4.8 for MBmAw, MBmHw, MCmHw, and MCmHw respectively.


Key words: pH, fermentation, maize, Bambara groundnut malt, cowpea malt, food fortification.


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